Gynecomastia is a physiological phenomenon that is commonly seen in newborns and adolescents. However, it is important to be aware of the pathological conditions and medications that can cause breast enlargement in men. Antibiotics, antiulcer drugs, growth hormones, and chemotherapy have all been reported to induce gynecomastia. Teens who use anabolic steroids or abuse alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or amphetamine should be warned that they may develop gynecomastia.
The treatment for drug-induced gynecomastia is to discontinue the offending drug. In rare cases, surgical intervention may be necessary. Gynecomastia can be caused by hormonal imbalances, systemic disorders, various types of carcinomas, and numerous drugs. Drug-induced gynecomastia is more common in adults than in children and adolescents and can be caused by antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer, antiretroviral drugs for HIV, and calcium antagonists for hypertension. Drug-induced gynecomastia is quite common and could account for up to a quarter of all cases. Medications are one of the most common causes of gynecomastia or excessive breast tissue growth in men.
Treatment usually involves reassuring children and their families; however, it is important to be aware that certain medications, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. In the case of drug-induced gynecomastia, the treatment consists of discontinuing the suspected drug. There are a handful of illicit drugs that can lead to the development of chronically abused gynecomastia.